Bazant's "sonic boom" formula from "What Did and Did Not Cause Collapse of World Trade Center Twin Towers in New York?" by Zdeněk P. Bažant, Jia-Liang Le, Frank R. Greening and David B. Benson, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, October 2008. υ(a) represents air flow velocity escaping from a collapsing floor. Notice that vent ratio ψ appears to be chosen relatively arbitrarily as discussed in the paper.
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